Public Government JAWHAR Staff

What is mal?

  • Literally
    Mal/refers to anything owned and directly controlled by the legal owner whether it is in the form of a thing (‘ain) or benefit (manfa’ah). Examples of wealth in the form of things (‘ain) are gold, silver, animals and also plants. Examples of wealth in the form of benefit (manfaat) are using and living in a home. Anything that cannot be controlled is literally not considered as wealth. For example, birds in the air, fish in the water plants in the forest and earth resources.
  • Technically
    Wealth must consist of 3 elements, which are:

    • It can be controlled (hiyazah)
      Therefore, anything that cannot be controlled is not mal. All immaterial things like knowledge, health, nobility and cleverness are not included since they are uncontrollable things. The other things are open air, heat of the sun, light of the moon.
    • Beneficial items
      Therefore, anything that cannot be benefitted at all like a dead animal or anything that can be benefitted from it yet it is not considered beneficial like a piece of grain, a drop of water or an extremely small piece of land cannot be categorized as mal.
    • Anything that has value
      When it is being spoiled, it must be compensated. This definition has legal impacts, where in laws “property” refers to anything that has value.

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Last Updated: 21 October, 2021 @ 4:17 PM
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